TAILORED LEARNING

ENL Program

New York State Education Department Standards for ENL

Standard 1: English for information and understanding refers to the competencies and knowledge of English that students must obtain in order to communicate effectively in social and academic settings.

Standard 2:  English for literary response, enjoyment, and expression requires that students develop the knowledge and skills in English to read and understand rich literature that ranges from classical to contemporary, and includes works representing a variety of cultures.

Standard 3:  English for critical analysis and evaluation develops students’ abilities to read, write, listen and speak in English to analyze and evaluate complex texts and issues.

Standard 4:  English for social and classroom interaction outlines strategies, both in and out of school, that LEP/ELLs must master to communicate effectively in English.

Standard 5:  English for cross-cultural knowledge and understanding articulates the components of acquiring a “second culture” in both social and academic contexts.

Listening (L) Speaking (S) Reading (R) Writing (W)

STANDARD 1:

Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for information and understanding.

Students learning English as a second language will use English to acquire, interpret, apply, and transmit information for content area learning and personal use. They will develop and use skills and strategies appropriate to their level of English proficiency to collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts.

Performance Indicators

  1. Identify and use reading and listening strategies to make text comprehensible and meaningful. Such strategies include skimming; scanning; previewing; reviewing; discussing; listening selectively; listening for a specific purpose; listening for main ideas and details; note taking; using structural and context clues, cognates, format, sequence, and an understanding of letter-sound relationships to decode difficult words. (L, R)
  2. Read, gather, view, listen to, organize, discuss, interpret, and analyze information related to academic content areas from various sources. Such sources include nonfiction books for young adults, reference books, magazines, textbooks, the Internet, databases, audio and media presentations, oral interviews, charts, graphs, maps, and diagrams. (L, S, R, W)
  3. Select information appropriate to the purpose of the investigation with suitable supporting material. Such material includes facts, details, illustrative examples, anecdotes, and personal experiences. (L, S, R, W)
  4. Compare, contrast, categorize, and synthesize information and objects, and identify complexities and discrepancies in the information. (L, S, R, W)
  5. Formulate, ask, and respond to various questions forms to obtain, clarify, and extend information and meaning. (L, S, R, W)
  6. Make and support inferences about information and ideas with reference to features in oral and written text. Such features include vocabulary, format, facts, sequence, register, and relevance of details. (L, S, R, W)
  7. Present information clearly in a variety of oral and written forms for different audiences and purposes related to all academic content areas. Such forms include paraphrases, summaries, stories, research reports, essays, articles, posters, charts, and other graphics. (S, W)
  8. Select a focus, organization, and point of view for oral and written presentations, and justify this selection. (S, W)
  9. Convey and organize information, using facts, details, illustrative examples, and a variety of patterns and structures. Such patterns and structures include chronological order, cause and effect, problem and solution, and general-to specific presentation. (S, W)
  10. Distinguish between fact and opinion, and relevant and irrelevant information, and exclude nonessential information in oral and written presentations. (L, S, R, W)
  11. Use the process of prewriting, drafting, revising, peer editing, and proofreading (the “writing process”) to produce well-constructed informational texts. (L, S, R, W)
  12. Convey information and ideas through spoken and written language, using conventions and features of American English appropriate to audience and purpose. Such spoken language features include appropriate grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and intonation. Such written language features include appropriate grammar, vocabulary, correct spelling, punctuation, capitalization, paragraphing, and a wide variety of sentence structures. (L, S, R, W)
  13. Engage in collaborative activities through a variety of student groupings to read, gather, share, discuss, interpret, organize, analyze, synthesize, and present information.

Such groupings include small groups, cooperative learning groups, process writing groups, cross-age groups, research groups, and interest groups. (L, S, R, W)

  1. Consult print and nonprint resources (e.g., audio/visual media, family) in the native language when needed. (L, S, R)
  2. Apply self-monitoring and self-correcting strategies for accurate language production and oral and written presentation, using established criteria for effective presentation of information. (L, S, R, W)
  3. Apply learning strategies to acquire information and make texts comprehensible and meaningful. Such strategies include using prior knowledge, graphic organizers, reference materials, and context cues; planning; note taking; questioning; exploring cognates and root words; and applying ideas to new settings or experiences. (L, S, R, W)

Commencement

Sample Classroom Tasks in ENL by English Proficiency Level

Beginning Intermediate Advanced

Students complete a simple anticipation guide (following a KWL exercise) about how the school handles an environmental issue such as paper recycling. The teacher presents accurate information about the issue orally to students, using pictures and props, and students refer to the anticipation guide to check their responses or answer their questions. Students ask the teacher questions about the issue, and later, whether the school is doing enough to address the issue. The teacher shares a rubric of criteria, and students, using the rubric, vote on which opinion was most convincing.  Students brainstorm environmental issues relevant to the school context, such as paper recycling, air pollution caused by local traffic, or waste removal, and decide on one to investigate. In pairs, they prepare and conduct interviews with different school personnel. Students present their information and identify different points of view on the issue. After the pairs organize the information they collected, the teacher assigns pairs of students a point of view, and stages a debate, following traditional debate rules. After the debate, students vote on which point of view was argued most convincingly, using a rubric of criteria.

Students brainstorm environmental issues relevant to the school context, such as paper recycling, air pollution caused by local traffic, or waste removal, and select one issue to study in depth. In pairs, students research the issue, by using library and Internet resources and by interviewing key school personnel. They stage a mock “Earth Summit” with individual students taking on the roles of different school personnel affected by the issue, and presenting resolutions similar to Model U.N. resolutions to address the issue. Each student is responsible for writing one reso-lution and arguing its merits to the summit.

TASK 1

Students look through magazines for pictures of natural disasters—hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, earthquakes—and their consequences (destroyed homes, fallen branches, broken bridges). The class uses the pictures to rank the disasters from bad to worst on the basis of the criterion “disaster with the most harmful consequences” and they place the pictures in order on a bulletin board. Students label all pictures with words or simple sentences. In small groups, students guess and/or describe the consequences of each disaster, and each group lists these consequences next to the appropriate picture.

Students brainstorm a list of natural disasters. Using teacher-provided resources such as magazine pictures and simple articles, students work in pairs to research consequences as well as prevention measures of these disasters. Students create a T-chart listing the elements of different disasters and their consequences (e.g., hurricane, high winds, roofs blown off buildings). In pairs, students choose one type of disaster and, using the Internet, research ways of preventing damage and injury from it (e.g., alternative construction techniques). Students create a brochure for the public, explaining possible consequences of the disaster, and measures people should take to prevent damage or injury.

Students select and read a news article about a natural disaster common to their native countries from teacher-provided materials and Internet resources. They create a T-chart listing the elements of the disaster and its consequences (e.g., hurricane, high winds, roofs blown off buildings). Students research ways of preventing damage and injury from the disaster (e.g., alternative construction techniques), as well as the services FEMA provides in case of each disaster in the U.S. If possible, they find out what disaster services the government (or the U.N.) offers in their own country, and write a report comparing the two. Students then take on the role of director of emergency management in their respective countries, and are interviewed by the class with regard to preventing, and responding to, the disaster that was focused on in the student’s report.

TASK 2

Using teacher-provided materials (usually available in theme books on ancient Egypt), students arrange pictures of the mummification process in sequential order. The teacher hands out simple sentence strips describing the mummification process, and students glue each strip next to the appropriate picture. Students combine the sentences and add transition words such as first, second, next, later, with the teacher’s help, to form descriptive paragraphs.

Students read simple articles describing the mummification process, and then arrange pictures of the process in sequential order. Using a vocabulary list provided by the teacher, students write a description of each picture. They combine their descriptions and add transition words such as first, second, next to form an illustrated guide to the mummification process.

In pairs, students use Internet sources to find information about the mummification process, and take notes on the information that they find. They take on the role of “master mummifiers” and, working independently, create a mummification manual (using web design software if available) describing the process for “apprentice mummifiers.” Students use illustrations and written details to describe each step of the process. The teacher guides the class in developing a rubric to check each other’s work for sequential order, use of transition words, adequate detail, and clear directions. Students share their manuals with their native English-speaking peers in their global history class during the unit on ancient Egypt.

STANDARD 2:

Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for literary response, enjoyment, and expression. Students learning English as a second language will use English for self-expression, artistic creation, and participation in popular culture. They will develop and use skills and strategies appropriate to their level of English proficiency to listen to, read, and respond to oral, written, and electronically produced texts and performances, relate texts and performances to their own lives and other works, and develop an understanding of the diverse social, historical, and cultural dimensions the texts and performances represent.

Performance Indicators

  1. Read, listen to, view, write about, and discuss a variety of texts from a wide range of authors, subjects, genres, cultures, and historical periods. Such sources include poems, stories, myths, fables, plays, novels, and other fiction and nonfiction texts, in authentic and modified forms, including works of American popular culture.
  2. Apply reading and listening strategies to make literary text comprehensible and meaningful. Such strategies include skimming, scanning, previewing, reviewing, listening selectively, listening for a specific purpose, and listening for main ideas and details.
  3. Identify and explain the distinguishing features of different literary genres, periods, and traditions, and use those features to aid comprehension, interpretation, and discussion of literature.
  4. Locate and identify a wide range of significant literary elements and techniques in texts and use those elements to interpret the work, comparing and contrasting the work to other works and to students’ own experiences. Such elements include setting, character, plot, theme, point of view, figurative language, text structure, repetition, characterization, imagery, foreshadowing, and climax.
  5. Make predictions, inferences, and deductions, and describe different levels of meaning of literary works presented orally and in written form, including literal and implied meanings. Strategies include summarizing; explaining; and identifying word choice, point of view, and symbols.
  6. Read aloud with confidence, accuracy, fluency, and expression to demonstrate understanding and to convey an interpretation of meaning.
  7. Compose and present personal and formal responses to and interpretations of published literary works and the work of peers, referring to details and features of text. Such features include characters, setting, plot, ideas, events, vocabulary, and text structure.
  8. Create stories, poems, sketches, songs, and plays, including those that reflect traditional and popular American culture, using typical features of a given genre; create an effective voice, using a variety of writing styles appropriate to different audiences, purposes, and settings.
  9. Engage in collaborative activities through a variety of student groupings to create and respond to literature. Such groupings include small groups, cooperative learning groups, literature circles, and process writing groups.
  10. Create, discuss, interpret, and respond to literary works, using appropriate and effective vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and punctuation in writing, and using appropriate vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation in speaking.
  11. Apply self-monitoring and self-correcting strategies while reading, viewing, discussing, listening to, or producing literary texts and essays. Such strategies include asking questions, starting over, rephrasing, and exploring alternative ways of saying things.
  12. Apply learning strategies to comprehend, make inferences about, and analyze literature, and to produce literary responses. Such strategies include asking questions; using prior knowledge, graphic organizers, and context cues; planning; note taking; and exploring cognates and root words.

Commencement

Sample Classroom Tasks in ENL by English Proficiency Level

Beginning Intermediate Advanced

On a concept map, students brainstorm the characteristics that make a person a good friend. Students listen to teacher read aloud a brief poem on friendship. Students then add to the concept map any new ideas about friendship that the poem may prompt. Each student then writes a brief description of his/her own best friend, using the vocabulary generated on the concept map.

With teacher support, students read a short story on friendship, and complete a story map including theme, setting, characters, problem, and resolution. The teacher facilitates a discussion about what might happen next and how the ending could be different. Then, working in pairs, students identify the two most important characters in the story and complete a Venn diagram comparing the two. Each student then takes on the role of one of the characters and writes a letter to another character. Students exchange letters and answer them.

Students read a poem and a short story or essay on friendship, noting the elements of theme, setting, characters, problem, and resolution. Class discusses elements of friendship exemplified in the works. Students use the writing process to compose an essay on their personal view of friendship, citing examples from their own experience to support their views.

TASK 1

Students view an excerpt of a film about a social problem (e.g., discrimination, violence in school, substance abuse, peer pressure). The teacher guides the class in constructing a problem/solution organizer based on the film excerpt. As a whole class, the students discuss other social problems facing them. Using vocabulary generated during the class discussion, students work in small groups or pairs to write and act out a brief skit about one of these problems. Then they present it to the class, answering questions from peers.

Students and teacher read a one-act play or  short story about a social problem. The teacher guides the class in a discussion in which they identify the author’s point of view on the topic. Then, using vocabulary generated during the discussion, they work in pairs to write their own interpretation of the problem, and, on the basis of their own experiences, agree or disagree with the author’s point of view. Pairs share their interpretations and assessments with the class.

Students read two short stories about a social problem by authors from different countries or cultural backgrounds. They work in small groups to identify how the perceived problem and the perspective of the author are influenced by his/her background. Class compiles list of cultural and social influences represented or implied in the readings. Then, working independently and using information from the list, students write an essay on how the problem might be resolved in another cultural setting.

TASK 2

Students brainstorm problems they have had to overcome with parents, grandparents, or other adults. Then they listen to the teacher read aloud a short literary selection (or adapted text) on intergenerational conflict, and identify the problems in the selections and learn how they were resolved. In small groups, they list other possible ways in which the problem could be resolved, and recommend one to the class. The class then discusses which one of the solutions would most likely work.

With teacher support, students view a film on intergenerational conflict such as Rebel Without a Cause, omitting the ending. Students may also read excerpts from a written version of the film, if available. As a whole class, students identify the factors that lead to the conflict. Working in pairs, students write a joint letter of advice to a character in the story on how to solve the problem. The ending of the film is then viewed and compared with the advice they offered.

Students view the film West Side Story and a traditional version of Romeo and Juliet. As a whole class, they compare and contrast the stories using a T-chart. After reviewing common literary elements and techniques, students make note of those used in both stories. In pairs, students take the role of a film reviewer, each student rating a different film on a scale of one to ten and prepare a defense of their rating. Using the format of a film review show on TV, pairs present their views to class and debate their differences of opinion.

STANDARD 3:

Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for critical analysis and evaluation. Students learning English as a second language will use English to express their opinions and judgments on experiences, messages, ideas, information, and issues from variety of perspectives. They will develop and use skills and strategies appropriate to their level of English proficiency to reflect on and analyze experiences, messages, ideas, information, and issues presented by others using a variety of established criteria.

Performance Indicators

  1. Develop and present clear interpretations, analyses, and evaluations of issues, ideas, texts, and experiences; justify and explain the rationale for positions, using persuasive language, tone, evidence, and well-developed arguments. Forms of such presentations include oral (class presentations, speeches, and debates), visual (posters, graphs, charts, political cartoons, and illustrations), and written (essays, editorials, movie/textbook/book reviews, position papers, and brochures).
  2. Assess, compare, and evaluate the quality of spoken or written texts and visual presentations, using different criteria related to the organization, subject area, and purpose of text. Text types include editorials, letters to the editor, political speeches, illustrations, charts, movie/textbook/ book reviews, and advertisements.
  3. Recognize and communicate personal and multiple points of view within and among groups, in discussing, interpreting, and evaluating information; make inferences about a writer’s or speaker’s point of view.
  4. Evaluate students’ own and others’ work, individually and collaboratively, on the basis of a variety of criteria, and recognize how chosen criteria affect evaluation. Criteria include visual presentation; clarity of ideas; logic; originality; comprehensiveness; and use of English vocabulary, grammar, and register.
  5. Recognize, explain, evaluate, and analyze how structural features affect readers’ and listeners’ understanding and appreciation of text. Such features include organization, syntax, repetition of words or ideas, vocabulary, and visuals.
  6. Speak and write, using the conventions and features of American English, to effectively influence an audience (e.g., to persuade, negotiate, argue). Such spoken language features include appropriate grammar, precise vocabulary, pronunciation, intonation, and presentation strategies. Such written language features include appropriate grammar, vocabulary, correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.
  7. Engage in collaborative activities through a variety of groupings to discuss, share, reflect on, develop, and express, and to interpret opinions and evaluations about a variety of experiences, ideas, and information. Such groupings include small groups, discussion groups, process writing groups, and cooperative learning groups.
  8. Apply self-monitoring and self-correcting strategies, using established criteria for effective oral and written presentation and standards for a particular genre (e.g., debate, speech), to adjust presentation and language production to effectively express opinions and evaluations. Such strategies include asking questions, starting over, rephrasing, and exploring alternative ways of saying things.
  9. Apply learning strategies to examine, interpret, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate a variety of materials. Such strategies include using prior knowledge, graphic organizers, context cues; planning; note taking; and exploring cognates and root words.

Commencement

Sample Classroom Tasks in ENL by English Proficiency Level

Beginning Intermediate Advanced

Teacher leads the class in the electoral process in the U.S. Teacher presents a list of candidates running in an upcoming election, along with their posters or pamphlets. Students find ads, articles, and other writing about the candidates in a newspaper brought in by the teacher; identify the main issues of each candidate’s campaign; and determine which candidate’s publicity is most visually appealing. Students keep a log of campaign ads seen on TV or heard on the radio and the issues addressed in the ads, and report findings to class as the campaign progresses.

The teacher presents two opposing editorials on a current social or political topic. Students read and discuss the editorials. Working in pairs, they research the issue in the library and/or on the Internet, and take notes. Each student independently writes a letter to the editor either agreeing or disagreeing with the editorials they read, using gathered information and data as support.

Students view a short political speech given by a well-known political or historical figure. They read the text of the speech afterwards. The teacher facilitates a discussion about what made the speech effective (or not). Students then choose and research a social or political issue, and write a persuasive speech in which they present their own point of view on the subject. They deliver the speech to the class. Peers use a student-created rubric to evaluate the speeches, including such items as persuasiveness, truth, clarity, and effectiveness of the speaker.

TASK 1

The teacher reads aloud a simple letter to a newspaper column such as “Dear Abby” while the students read the letter silently. As a whole class, students discuss possible answers to the problem. The teacher guides them in writing a brief response to the letter. Pairs compare responses with one another and ultimately to the one printed in the column.

Students read a short story, memoir, or essay in which the writer is faced with a dilemma and resolves it. As a whole class, students brainstorm other ways in which the writer could have chosen to respond to the problem. Each student then writes a letter to the author agreeing with the author’s decision or giving an alternative method of solving the problem. The teacher provides mini-lessons as needed in the structure and conventions of formal letter writing.

Students read two differing reviews of a film viewed in class. Following these models, students in small groups write a review in which they provide a summary of the plot, information about the characters, and comments on the effectiveness of the acting, directing, and other features. They make their own recommendation about whether or not to see the film, and present their review to the class. One review is submitted to the school newspaper

TASK 2

With teacher support, students review a chart that displays demographic data from the years 1990 and 2000. They identify trends among selected variables in terms of increases or decreases. In small groups, they write a brief description of the data and discuss the possible reasons behind the changes. Groups compare their conclusions.

Using a list of questions brainstormed in class about immigration experiences, students conduct a three- to five-minute interview of a family member or recent immigrant, and they tape-record it. Interviewer plays recording in class and other students take notes, pausing as needed. After a selected number of interviews have been played, students in small groups compare and contrast the experiences of the interviewees.

Students complete Intermediate task. They read a brief memoir, diary, or short story on an immigration experience. In pairs, they use a graphic organizer to compare and contrast the author’s experience of immigration with their own or a family member’s experience. Each student then writes a short essay based on the comparison, using examples and details from each. Essays are collected, peer edited, and compiled into a class book on immigration experiences.

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